Aerial (skateboarding)

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Aerials (or more commonly airs) are a type of skateboarding trick usually performed on half-pipes, pools or quarter pipes where there is a vertical wall with a transition (curved surface linking wall and ground) available. Aerials usually combine rotation with different grabs. Most of the different types of grabs were originally aerial tricks that were performed in ditches, empty pools, and vert ramps before flatground aerials became common. Aerials can be executed by ollieing just as the front wheels reach the lip of a ramp, or can be executed simply by lifting the front wheels over the coping (or lip). The former is preferable on shallower ramps where the skateboarder has less speed to lift them above the ramp.

180 In general use, the term “180” is an aerial where the skater and board spin a half rotation. In common use, the term refers to an Ollie 180 performed on flat terrain, where the skater starts rolling forward, Ollies, turns a half rotation, and lands backwards. The same trick can be done on a bank, transition, or vert wall, but the difference is that the skater lands forwards. This is usually called a Frontside Ollie or Backside Ollie depending on the direction of rotation. A 180 can also be done starting from fakie, but in that case it is called a half-Cab.
360 An air where the rider and board spin one full rotation. Can be performed almost anywhere whether it be on vert or street. On vert, this is most commonly performed from fakie so that the rider completes the 360 facing forward. Jeff Phillips was one of the first skaters to perform this while landing fakie (usually doing a lien grab).
540 A 540 is an aerial where skater and board spin one and a half rotations in midair. They were first performed on vertical ramps and quickly became a staple of vertical skateboarding at the professional level, but they have also been performed on box jumps, pyramids, down stairs, and even on mini-halfpipes. In the early 80s, Billy Ruff invented the Unit, the precursor to the modern 540. He’d early-grab the front rail and twist frontside, briefly putting his other hand down on the transition in order to push off the wall, which made it easier to get the whole spin. Because he had to put his hand down, the Unit was always done below the coping. In 1984[1] Tony Hawk took it to the next level when he invented the Frontside 540 (the inverted version of which is now known as the “Rodeo Flip”). But soon after, for some reason he lost the trick, and it didn’t gain any sort of popularity until much later. In 1984, Mike McGill, then a pro skater for Powell, invented the McTwist, which is easily the most popular 540 variation ever (see below). A flood of variations soon followed, including almost every conceivable grab while spinning either direction, no grabs at all (Ollie 540), as well as versions combined with a Varial, Kickflip, or Heelflip.
720 The 720, two full mid-air rotations, is one of the rarest tricks in skateboarding. It was first done by Tony Hawk in 1985, and it wasn’t something he planned to do. He accidentally over-rotated a Gay Twist and Lance Mountain suggested that he might be able to spin twice. After less than an hour, he landed it and has done it consistently ever since.[2] Like a Gay Twist, 720s are usually done from fakie grabbing Mute, but there have been a few different variations. Besides inventing the stock 720, Hawk also was the first to do Stalefish and Varial variations. Danny Way was the first to do indy 720s. Colin McKay and Jake Brownhave both done Tailgrab 720s. Shaun White and Mitchie Brusco do a Backside Grab 720 consistently, and Matt Dove landed a spectacular pop shuv-it indy 720 at the 2001 X-Games. Bucky Lasek has landed an indy grab forward to fakie backside variation, while Mike Callahan, a former pro from Chicago, has been known to do a frontside unit 720 variation.
900 The rider spins 900 degrees backside in the air, usually while grabbing Mute. It is arguably the most widely covered trick in the history of skateboarding, as Tony Hawk landed it for the first time at the 1999 X-Games following the best trick competition. The celebration on the ramp quickly snowballed into newspaper and television coverage which helped make Tony Hawk a household name. Five years later, Giorgio Zattoni and Sandro Dias both landed their first 900s within a week of each other. Since then, Alex Perlson landed it at the 2008 Maloof Money Cup, then Mitchie Brusco completed it at X Games 17 Mega Ramp Practice.
1080 The skater spins 1,080 degrees (3 full rotations) backside or frontside in the air. The trick was long considered to be impossible. However, on March 30, 2012, 12-year-old American, Tom Schaar, landed it on the Woodward California Mega Ramp in five tries.[3] Schaar rode in fakie turned backside and grabbed mute to complete the required three rotations. Riding fakie allowed Schaar to land forward after completing the three rotations. Jono Schwan also accomplished the manoeuvre. Mitchie Brusco later completed the trick for the first time in competition at the X-Games in Barcelona in May 2013.[4]
Airwalk A no-footed Backside Air where the front hand grabs the nose. Usually the front foot is kicked off the toe-side of the board, while the back foot is kicked off the heel-side, producing the impression of walking in the air, hence the name. Rodney Mullendid it on the flat ground first, while Tony Hawk was the first to do it on vert.
Backflip The Backflip is an aerial where the rider and his board complete a full rotation on the lateral axis. If the trick is done by launching out of the ramp, the skater lands forwards. If it is done on the wall of a vert ramp, the skater lands backwards, adding significantly to the difficulty and danger involved. It was first done in 1997 by Rob “Sluggo” Boyce, because he “had seen BMX bikers, rollerbladers, and snowboarders do Backflips, and thought it was about time a skateboarder did one.” He first learned to do it in a gymnasium by launching off a ramp and landing in a foam pit. Once he was comfortable with the technique, he learned to do it on a vert ramp. Despite the trick’s appearance in many skateboarding video games, the real trick is still more legendary than commonplace.
Frontflip The Frontflip is a backflip except you flip towards the front foot.
Backside Air A Backside Air is performed by riding up the transition, grabbing the board on the heel side with the front hand, lifting off, turning backside (toward the skater’s toes) and landing forward. It is considered a staple of vertical skateboarding. Some skaters grab the board between the trucks, while others grab the nose.
Benihana A one-footed tail grab, taking the back foot off and kicking straight down or sideways in a backwards direction. The idea is to take the back foot off and use the front foot to kick the board out ahead of you, and then catch the board by the tail and put it back under your feet. Invented by Lester Kasai.
Body Jar A Backside Air grabbing the nose where the rider smacks the tail of the board on the coping on the way in.
Caballerial A 360 backside ollie from fakie. Invented by Steve Caballero.
Candy flip A Rodeo combined with a Varial invented by Andy MacDonald.
Cannonball An aerial where the rider grabs the nose with the front hand and the tail with the back hand.
Christ Air An air where the board is grabbed in one hand, and the body is in a “crucifix”-like position. Originally invented by Christian Hosoi. Usually performed backside (as invented by Bissnauth Samoru), but occasionally done frontside as well, or even a frontside finger-flip variation as performed by Monty Nolder.
Del Mar Indy A Tuck-Knee Indy where the skater tweaks it back behind his back pointing his knees down. Similar to a Japan Air
Frontside Air Likely the first aerial to be done on a skateboard, as it is one of the easiest to learn. It involves going up the transition, grabbing the board on the toe side between the feet with the trailing hand, lifting off, and turning frontside (toward the skater’s back) and then landing and riding down the ramp. It is a matter of dispute who did the first Frontside Air, but Tony Alva is widely credited with popularizing it. In the first few years of doing this trick, all skaters grabbed the board before lifting off (known as an “early grab”). Eventually, it became common practice to Ollie first, then grab the board. However, Ollieing in is much more difficult, and so it is still common to see skateboarders perform the trick early-grab style.
Gay Twist A Fakie Mute 360. Basically, it is a Caballerial with a Mute grab. It got named a “Gay Twist” because Lance Mountain (who invented it) thought grabbing the board was a “gay” substitute for the original, grab-less, Caballerial. Most skaters do consider this trick to be easier. Like the Caballerial, the Gay Twist has spawned numerous variations over the years. Some found it easier to grab backside instead of Mute, which they called a “Lez Twist.” Other notable offspring of the Gay Twist include the Frontside Gay Twist, Kickflip and Heelflip Gay Twists, Varial Gay Twist, and the 720.
Helipop This is more of a freestyle or street skating trick than most other aerials. It is essentially the same thing as a Caballerial, but instead of doing a 360 fakie, it is a 360 Nollie. This was invented by Rodney Mullen and has been done both backside or frontside.
Indy The Indy is done by grabbing the toe-side rail with your back hand while doing a backside air. Invented by Duane Peters, who was riding for the Independent Truck Company at the time, hence the name Indy.
Grosman Grab In this trick the rider reaches their front hand down between their legs and grabs the heelside edge of the board. Much like a Roastbeef, but using the front hand instead.
Japan Air Essentially a Mute Air where the skater pulls the board up behind his back and knees pointed down for added style.
Judo Air A Backside air where the skater takes his front foot off the board and kicks it forward and pulls the board backwards while the back foot is still on the board. The name of the trick stems from the appearance that the skater is doing a martial-arts-style kick in mid air even though competitive Judo forbids the use of kicks.
Lien Air Another of the basic airs. It is a frontside air grabbing the nose or heel edge with your front hand (leading hand). Neil Blender named the Lien Air. Lien is Neil spelled backwards.
Madonna A one-footed lien to tail, where the front foot is taken off and kicked out straight down (behind the board), invented by Tony Hawk.
McTwist The McTwist is an aerial where the rider performs an inverted backside 540 (usually while grabbing Mute – front hand grabbing the toe side of the board). Invented by Mike McGill, who first performed it on a wooden half-pipe in Sweden in 1984.
Melancholy/Melon A Backside Air where the skater grabs the board on the heel edge between the feet with their front hand and tweaks the board as forward as possible for added style.
Method Air Another Backside Air variation where the skater straightens his hips and bends his knees so that the board goes up behind his back.
Mute Air Performed by riding up the transition and grabbing with the front hand on the toe side of the board between the feet, turning backside, and landing. It is the same grab as a slob air, but turning the opposite direction. The mute air was invented by Chris Weddle, and was so named because he was deaf from birth.
Pro Grab Based off its name, the Pro Grab is one of the hardest tricks in skateboard history and usually only done by pros. The Pro Grab is a Tailgrab and mid flight the boarder grabs Roast Beef with his front hand. Rarely seen, rarely done, the Pro Grab was first executed by a rider named Andy “The Viper” Jackson in 1934 at his local pipe.
Nosegrab The Nosegrab is similar to the Tailgrab, however, instead of grabbing the tail (back) of the board, you grab the nose (front). The rider ollies, pops back foot off board and grabs the nose (front) of the skateboard. Once the rider lets go, the rider must set his/her back foot back down over the back bolts and his/her front foot over the front bolts.
Roastbeef Performed similar to a Stalefish, however the skater grabs the heel-edge of the board with his or her trailing hand in-between the legs, rather than wrapping the arm behind. Invented by Jeff Grosso, it is much simpler to execute than a Stalefish, and is sometimes referred to as the “poor-man’s stalefish.”
Rocket Air An air where the skateboarder grabs the nose of the skateboard with both hands and at the same time places both feet on the tail. Invented by Christian Hosoi.
Sack tap A sack tap is when the skater flies into the air off a ramp, grabs his board in mid-air with both hands and taps his testicles then puts the board back under his feet and lands on the ground. Invented by Tony Hawk.
Saran Wrap Taken from a freestyle trick invented by Rodney Mullen, this air is performed by grabbing backside with the front hand and then kicking or “wrapping” the front leg forward then in a circular motion around the nose of the board. Once the leg has wrapped at least 180 around the board, the back hand grabs like a frontside air while the back hand is released and the front foot is placed back on the board.
Sean Penn The Sean Penn is similar to a Madonna except the skateboarder turns backside instead of frontside, usually kicking the front foot up and off the toe side of the board before hitting the tail on the coping. It was named because Sean Penn was married toMadonna for a while, and thus was the opposite of Madonna. Possibly invented by Mark Rogowski, who popularized the trick.
Slob-Air Performed by riding up the transition grabbing with your leading hand on the toe side of the board between the feet, launching off the coping turning frontside, and landing. The Layback air—which has a similar “grab”— preceded the slob-air by a number of years. While Slob-Airs, Slob-Bonelesses and Fastplants, Slob-Airs were common in the 1980s and are still staples of transition skateboarding, nearer to the present, Tony Hawk made a Heelflip Slob Air and Lincoln Ueda landed a Slob 540.
Stalefish One of the more difficult aerial variations. A Stalefish is a heel-side grab with your back hand reaching around your back leg, meaning it is not only awkward to reach, but necessitates that you grab quite late in your air. As for the name, it came from a camper at a Swedish skate camp where Tony Hawk was practicing. One day Tony landed the first Stalefish but didn’t have a name for it yet. During dinner, the only thing they had to eat at the camp was canned fish. The dinner apparently was not too appetizing to Tony, who called it “stale fish.” The camper he was with misunderstood and assumed he was naming his new trick, and it stuck.
Stiffy A more sophisticated grab trick,the stiffy,is very close to the Indy grab,being a variant. In the stiffy,the skater is in the same position as an indy,except the rider is at a 90° angle and is shaking the board with their trailing hand. This trick requires lots of air.
Tailgrab The skater pops either side of the board, reaches behind, and grabs the tail with his/her hand. Generally considered one of the hardest of the basic aerials to do, since grabbing the tail adds little stability and tends to want to make the front foot come off the board.
Varial Originally a Varial was a Frontside Air where the skater reached between the legs and grabbed the board on the heel edge with the back hand (now known as a Roastbeef grab), then turned the board 180 degrees frontside with the hand before putting it back on the feet and landing. Like all Frontside Airs at the time, they were performed without an Ollie (early-grab). This version, however, is not very common anymore. Tony Hawk invented the Backside Varial in 1980, adding an Ollie in the process. Before long, 360 Varials, where the skater turns the board 360 degrees backside and grabs it, became commonplace. After the invention of the Kickflip Indy, most professional vert skaters had to be able to perform one to win a contest, and soon they were looking for ways to increase the difficulty. One of the ways was to spin the board 180 degrees during the Kickflip, which ended up being called a Varial Kickflip Indy. Somehow the term filtered back into street skating and it became common for a Kickflip combined with a Pop Shove it (180 spin of the board) to be called a Varial Kickflip. Some have even gone so far as to drop the “kickflip” from the name altogether, calling a Kickflip Shove-it a “Varial.” However, vertical skateboarders still use the term Varial to describe any trick involving spinning the board and grabbing it.

Ollie (skateboarding)

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The ollie is a skateboarding trick where the rider and board leap into the air without the use of the rider’s hands. It is basically the combination of popping, sliding, and jumping on the skateboard all at the same time. Originated in vertical skateboarding, and later on flat ground, it is not intuitively obvious how the liftoff is achieved, making the trick visually striking.

The ollie is a fundamental trick in skateboarding and is used to leap onto, over, or off obstacles, or over gaps of unfriendly terrain such as grass or stairs. As so many other tricks depend on it – for example the kickflip and heelflip – the ollie is often the first trick to be learned by a new skateboarder. The ollie typically takes considerable practice to learn.

This trick is also a registered trademark.

In 1978, Alan Gelfand, who was given his nickname “Ollie” by Scott Goodman, learned to perform no-handed aerials in bowls and pools using a gentle raising of the nose and scooping motion to keep the board with the feet. There are numerous references to Alan Gelfand’s Ollie with most notably pictures in the 1970s skateboarding magazine “Skateboarder”.

In 1982, while competing in the Rusty Harris contest in Whittier, California, Rodney Mullen debuted an ollie on flat ground, which he had adapted from Gelfand’s vertical version by combining the motions of some of his existing tricks. Mullen used a “see-saw” motion, striking the tail of the board on the ground to lift the nose, and using the front foot to level the board in mid-air. While Mullen was not initially impressed with his flat ground ollie, and did not formally name it, he realized it opened up a second, elevated plane on which to perform tricks.

Mullen’s flat ground ollie is now considered to have transformed the practice of skateboarding. Rodney won the Rusty Harris contest, was afterwards asked by many riders to demonstrate the trick, and later in the year it would appear with the name “Ollie-pop” as a “trick tip” in the skateboarding magazine Thrasher.

The flat ground ollie technique is strongly associated with street skateboarding; mini ramp and vert riders can also use this technique to gain air and horizontal distance from the coping, but half-pipe riders typically rely more on the board’s upward momentum to keep it with the rider, more similar to Gelfand’s original technique.

The rider begins the ollie by crouching and jumping directly upward. As the rider begins to leap, instead of lifting the feet from the board, he/she “pops” the tail by striking it against the ground, which raises the board nose-first. Maintaining contact with the board, the rider lifts the front leg and bends the front ankle so that the outer or top side of the shoe slides towards the nose of the board. The friction between the shoe and the board’s grip tape helps to guide and pull the board upward, while the rear foot only maintains slight contact with board to help guide it. When nearing the peak of the jump, the rider lifts the rear leg and pushes the front foot forward, which levels the board and keeps it in contact with the back foot.

The skater can gain greater clearance from the ground by jumping higher, popping faster, sliding the front foot farther forwards (starting the jump with the front foot farther back), and pulling the legs higher into the chest to raise the feet higher. Skaters attempting record-setting ollies even contort the legs so that board and feet are not directly below them, allowing the board to rise at or just below the level of the pelvis.

Very low ollies can be achieved using the same technique, but without the tail making contact with the ground. Even basic flip tricks can be achieved without the “pop” of the tail.

The highest official flat ground ollies are generally performed in ollie contests.

The highest preferred stance ollie was 45.00 inches (114.3 cm) from the ground, performed by Aldrin Garcia.

The highest switch stance ollie was 40.125 inches (101.92 cm), performed by Gavin Caperton.
The world record for the greatest number of consecutive ollies is held by Rob Dyrdek, who performed 215 ollies on the television show Rob and Big.
The most common variation of the ollie is the nollie (short for “nose ollie”), where the rider reverses the roles of the two legs so that the front foot pops the nose to the ground, and the rear foot lifts and guides the tail.

The switch stance ollie uses a similar body motion, but the nollie is subtly distinct: For one, the rider is always moving forward, with the body positioned in a nollie stance–closer to the nose and with the front foot on the nose. Secondly the rider usually postures the body differently so as to compensate for this stance with respect to the forward motion. The rider presses the nose down using their front foot to engage the “pop” motion in order for the board to rise. This is In contrast to a “Fakie Ollie” where the pop motion is performed by the rear foot on the tail, similarly to a normal Ollie, however the rider is traveling backwards when performing a Fakie Ollie. Where in a Nollie the rider is traveling forward with their front foot on the nose to apply the initial force “pop”.

Switch Ollie: an Ollie performed in the stance opposite of a rider’s normal stance. (Switch Stance).
Nollie: an Ollie performed using the front foot to snap the nose down.
Fakie Ollie: an ollie done while riding backwards
The Chinese Ollie: executed without hitting the tail of the skateboard to the ground, instead the skateboarder uses cracks in the sidewalk, by “bouncing” off them, to get air-time.
Ollie 180: an Ollie where the skateboarder and the skateboard spins 180 degrees after leaving the ground. Both the skateboarder and the skateboard rotate in the same direction (Frontside or Backside) with the skateboarder’s feet sticking to the skateboard. This trick is usually referred to as a frontside or backside 180, or less frequently and more popular with older skateboarders and/or when performed on a bank/quarterpipe, a frontside / backside ollie
Nollie 180: just like the Ollie 180 but done from a Nollie.
Half-Cab: just like the Ollie 180 but done in fakie. If rotated 360 degrees the trick is called a Full-Cab or Caballerial, named after Steve Caballero who invented them as aerials in pools. Cab and half-cab spins only include fakie backside. A fakie frontside 180 is not a half-cab.
Switch Ollie 180: just like the Ollie 180 but done from a Switch Ollie.
Ollie 360: is a full 360 rotation of the body and board together in one motion, whether front-side or back-side can be attained from this variation.
One Foot: an Ollie where the front foot is kicked forward over the nose of the board.
Ollie North: Another name for the ollie one foot.
Boned Ollie: an ollie where the board is dipped down and the legs are practically horizontal, like a “Melon Grab” but without the skateboarder actually grabbing the skateboard.
Ghost Ollie: an ollie where the skateboarder’s feet are above the board but the board and the skateboarder are still in air.
Pop-Shuvit: is an Ollie variation with the snap of the tail rotating the board 180 or 360 beneath the rider and catching it in mid-air. A Pressure-flip has a similar aspect from this trick, but only by applying pressure back-toe inward while jumping, will the rider make a rotation and inward flip successful.
primo Ollie: is an Ollie performed when standing in a primo position or when doing a primo slide. A primo Ollie is executed in the same way as an Ollie but the side of the front foot levels out the board instead of the top of the foot.
Hop Ollie: an Ollie using only one foot, such as a “Hop Nollie” (not the same as a no-comply)

Skateboarding trick

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A skateboarding trick, or simply a trick, is a maneuver performed on a skateboard while skateboarding. Skateboarding tricks may vary greatly in difficulty.

Though skateboards emerged in the 1940s, skateboarding tricks like the ones done today did not appear until decades later. In the 1970s and earlier, the most common tricks were “2D” freestyle types such as wheelies, manuals, and pivots. Only later in the 1970s and early 1980s were common modern-day tricks like the ollie and kickflip invented by Alan “Ollie” Gelfand and Rodney Mullen, setting the stage for other aerial tricks.

An Ollie is a jump where the front wheels leave the ground first. This motion is attained with a snap of the tail (from the backfoot) and sliding your front-foot forward to reach any altitude. A lot of technical tricks transpire from this element (e.g. the kickflip, heelflip, 360-flip). A nollie is when the back wheels leave the ground first by snapping the nose of the board, with the back foot sliding towards the tail.

Indy Grab
An Indy Grab involves floating in the air, while either using a hand to hold the board against the feet or keeping constant and careful pressure on the board with the feet to keep it from floating away. Indy Grab usually combine rotation with different grabs. This class of tricks was first popularized when Tony Hawk became famous for his frontside airs in empty swimming pools in the late 1970s and has expanded to include the bulk of skateboarding tricks to this day, including the ollie and all of its variations. The 900 and 1080 fall under the class of aerials, though these are commonly confused with aerial grabs.

Flip tricks
Flip tricks are a subset of aerials which are all based on the ollie. An example is the kickflip, the most widely known and performed flip trick. The board can be spun around many different axes as part of a flip trick, thus combining several rotations into one trick. These tricks are undoubtedly most popular among street skateboarding purists, although skaters with other styles perform them as well. Combining spins and flips is extremely popular in today’s culture. A common trick in skateboarding lines is a 360 flip, or tre flip. A 360 flip is the combination of a skateboard spinning 360 degrees and a kickflip. There are also double kickflips and triple kickflips which are very difficult but highly regarded in the skateboarding culture.

reestyle skateboarding tricks are tricks specifically associated with freestyle skateboarding.

Slides and grinds involve getting the board up on some type of ledge, rail, or coping and sliding or grinding along the board or trucks, respectively. When it is primarily the board which is contacting the edge, it’s called a slide; when it’s the truck, it is a grind. Grinding and sliding skateboards started with sliding the board on parking blocks and curbs, then extended to using the coping on swimming pools, then stairway handrails, and has now been expanded to include almost every possible type of edge.

Lip tricks are done on the coping of a pool or skateboard ramp. Most grinds can be done on the coping of a ramp or pool as well, but there are some coping tricks which require the momentum and vertical attitude that can only be attained on a transitioned riding surface. These include inverts and their variations as well as some dedicated air-to-lip combinations.

The history of Skateboarding 2000–present

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By 2001 skateboarding had gained in such popularity, that more participants under the age of 18 rode skateboards (10.6 million) than played baseball (8.2 million), although traditional organized team sports still dominated youth programs overall. Skateboarding and skateparks began to be viewed and used in a variety of new ways to compliment academic lessons in schools, including new non-traditional physical education skateboarding programs, like Skatepass and Skateistan that are used to encourage youth to have better attendance, self-discipline and confidence. This was also based on the healthy physical opportunities skateboarding was understood to bring participants for muscle & bone strengthening, balance and the positive impacts it can have on youth in teaching them mutual respect, social networking, artistic expression and an appreciation of the environment.

In 2003 Go Skateboarding Day was founded in southern California by the International Association of Skateboard Companies to promote skateboarding throughout the world. It is celebrated annually on June 21 “to define skateboarding as the rebellious, creative celebration of independence it continues to be.” According to market research firm American Sports Data the number of skateboarders worldwide increased by more than 60 percent between 1999 and 2002—from 7.8 million to 12.5 million.

Many cities also began implementing recreation plans and statutes, during this time period, as part of their vision for local parks and communities to make public lands more available in particular, for skateboarding, inviting skateboarders to come in off of the city streets and into organized skateboarding activity areas. By 2006 there were over 2,400 Skateparks worldwide and the design of skateparks themselves had made a transition, as skaters turned designers, began to emerge in the field adding features for all levels of skaters. Many new places to skateboard designed specifically for street skaters, such as the “Safe Spot Skate Spot” program, first initiated by professional skateboarder Rob Dyrdek throughout many cites, allowed for the creation of smaller alternative safe skate plazas to be built at a lower cost. One of the largest locations ever built to skateboard in the world, SMP Skatepark in China, at 12,000 square meters in size, was built complete with a 5,000-seat stadium.

In 2009 Skatelab opened the Skateboarding Hall of Fame & Skateboard Museum. Nominees are chosen by the International Association of Skateboard Companies (IASC).

Recently, barefoot skating has been experiencing a revival. Many skaters ride barefoot, particularly in summer and in warmer countries, such as South Africa, Australia, Spain and South America. The plastic penny board is intended to be ridden barefoot, as is the surfboard-inspired hamboard

The history of Skateboarding 1990s

Skateboarding during the 1990s became dominated by street skateboarding. Most boards are about 7 1⁄4 to 8 inches (180 to 200 mm) wide and 30 to 32 inches (760 to 810 mm) long. The wheels are made of an extremely hard polyurethane, with hardness (durometer) approximately 99A. The wheel sizes are relatively small so that the boards are lighter, and the wheels’ inertia is overcome quicker, thus making tricks more manageable. Board styles have changed dramatically since the 1970s but have remained mostly alike since the mid-1990s. The contemporary shape of the skateboard is derived from the freestyle boards of the 1980s with a largely symmetrical shape and relatively narrow width. This form had become standard by the mid ’90s.

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The history of Skateboarding 1980s

This period was fueled by skateboard companies that were run by skateboarders. The focus was initially on vert ramp skateboarding. The invention of the no-hands aerial (later known as the ollie) by Alan Gelfand in Florida in 1976, and the almost parallel development of the grabbed aerial by George Orton and Tony Alva in California, made it possible for skaters to perform airs on vertical ramps. While this wave of skateboarding was sparked by commercialized vert ramp skating, a majority of people who skateboarded during this period didn’t ride vert ramps. As most people could not afford to build vert ramps, or did not have access to nearby ramps, street skating increased in popularity.

Freestyle skating remained healthy throughout this period, with pioneers such as Rodney Mullen inventing many of the basic tricks that would become the foundation of modern street skating, such as the “Impossible” and the “kickflip”. The influence that freestyle exerted upon street skating became apparent during the mid-1980s; however, street skating was still performed on wide vert boards with short noses, slide rails, and large soft wheels. In response to the tensions created by this confluence of skateboarding “genres”, a rapid evolution occurred in the late 1980s to accommodate the street skater. Since few skateparks were available to skaters at this time, street skating pushed skaters to seek out shopping centers and public and private property as their “spot” to skate (public opposition, in which businesses, governments, and property owners have banned skateboarding on properties under their jurisdiction or ownership, would progressively intensify over the following decades. By 1992, only a small fraction of skateboarders remained as a highly technical version of street skating, combined with the decline of vert skating, produced a sport that lacked the mainstream appeal to attract new skaters.

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The history of Skateboarding 1970s

In the early 1970s, Frank Nasworthy started to develop a skateboard wheel made of polyurethane, calling his company Cadillac Wheels. Prior to this new material, skateboards wheels were metal or “clay” wheels. The improvement in traction and performance was so immense that from the wheel’s release in 1972 the popularity of skateboarding started to rise rapidly again, causing companies to invest more in product development. Nasworthy commissioned artist Jim Evans to do a series of paintings promoting Cadillac Wheels, they were featured as ads and posters in the resurrected Skateboarder magazine, and proved immensely popular in promoting the new style of skateboarding.

In the early 1970s skateparks hadn’t been invented yet, so skateboarders would flock and skateboard in such urban places like The Escondido reservoir in San Diego, California. Skateboarding magazine would publish the location and Skateboarders made up nicknames for each location such as the Tea Bowl, the Fruit Bowl, Bellagio, the Rabbit Hole, Bird Bath, the Egg Bowl, Upland Pool and the Sewer Slide. Some of the development concepts in the terrain of skateparks were actually taken from the Escondido reservoir. Many companies started to manufacture trucks (axles) specially designed for skateboarding, reached in 1976 by Tracker Trucks. As the equipment became more maneuverable, the decks started to get wider, reaching widths of 10 inches (250 mm) and over, thus giving the skateboarder even more control. A banana board is a skinny, flexible skateboard made of polypropylene with ribs on the underside for structural support. These were very popular during the mid-1970s and were available in a myriad of colors, bright yellow probably being the most memorable, hence the name.

In 1975 skateboarding had risen back in popularity enough to have one of the largest skateboarding competition’s since the 1960s, the Del Mar National Championships, which is said to have had up to 500 competitors. The competition lasted two days and was sponsored by Bahne Skateboards & Cadillac Wheels. While the main event was won by freestyle spinning skate legend Russ Howell, a local skate team from Santa Monica, California, the Zephyr team, ushered in a new era of surfer style skateboarding during the competition that would have a lasting impact on skateboarding’s history. With a team of 12, including skating legends such as Jay Adams, Tony Alva, Peggy Oki & Stacy Peralta, they brought a new progressive style of skateboarding to the event, based on the style of Hawaiian surfers Larry Bertlemann, Buttons Kaluhiokalani and Mark Liddell. Craig Stecyk, a photo journalist for Skateboarder Magazine wrote about and photographed the team, along with Glen E. Friedman, shortly afterwards and ran a series on the team called the Dogtown articles, which eventually immortalized the Zephyr skateboard team. The team became known as the Z-Boys and would go on to become one of the most influential teams in skateboarding’s history.

It was soon after that skateboarding contest for cash and prizes using a professional tier system began to be held throughout California, like the The California Free Former World Professional Skateboard Championships, which featured Freestyle and Slalom competitions.

A precursor to the extreme sport of Street luge, that was sanctioned by the United States Skateboarding Association (USSA), also took place during the 1970s in Signal Hill, California. The competition was called “The Signal Hill Skateboarding Speed Run”, with several competitors earning entries into the Guinness Book of World Records, at the time clocking speeds of over 50 mph on a skateboard. Due to technology and safety concerns at the time, when many competitors crashed during their runs, the sport did not gain popularity or support during this time.

In March 1976, Skateboard City skatepark in Port Orange, Florida and Carlsbad Skatepark in San Diego County, California, would be the first two skateparks to be opened to the public in just a week apart. They were the first of some 200 skateparks that would be built through 1982. This was due in part to articles that were running in the Investment Journals at the time, stating that skateparks were a good investment. vbuj Notable skateboarders from the 1970s also include Ty Page, Tom Inouye, Laura Thornhill, Ellen O’Neal, Kim Cespedes, Bob Biniak, Jana Payne, Waldo Autry, Robin Logan, Bobby Piercy, Russ Howell, Ellen Berryman, Shogo Kubo, Desiree Von Essen, Henry Hester, Robin Alaway, Paul Hackett, Michelle Matta, Bruce Logan, Steve Cathey, Edie Robertson, Mike Weed, David Hackett, Gregg Ayres, Darren Ho, and Tom Sims.

Manufacturers started to experiment with more exotic composites and metals, like fiberglass and aluminium, but the common skateboards were made of maple plywood. The skateboarders took advantage of the improved handling of their skateboards and started inventing new tricks. Skateboarders, most notably Ty Page, Bruce Logan, Bobby Piercy, Kevin Reed, and the Z-Boys started to skate the vertical walls of swimming pools that were left empty in the 1976 California drought. This started the “vert” trend in skateboarding. With increased control, vert skaters could skate faster and perform more dangerous tricks, such as slash grinds and frontside/backside airs. This caused liability concerns and increased insurance costs to skatepark owners, and the development (first by Norcon, then more successfully by Rector) of improved knee pads that had a hard sliding cap and strong strapping proved to be too-little-too-late. During this era, the “freestyle” movement in skateboarding began to splinter off and develop into a much more specialized discipline, characterized by the development of a wide assortment of flat-ground tricks.

As a result of the “vert” skating movement, skate parks had to contend with high-liability costs that led to many park closures. In response, vert skaters started making their own ramps, while freestyle skaters continued to evolve their flatland style. Thus by the beginning of the 1980s, skateboarding had once again declined in popularity.

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The history of Skateboarding 1940s

The first skateboards started with wooden boxes, or boards, with roller skate wheels attached to the bottom. Crate scooters preceded skateboards, having a wooden crate attached to the nose (front of the board), which formed rudimentary handlebars. The boxes turned into planks, similar to the skateboard decks of today. An American WAC, Betty Magnuson, reported seeing French children in the Montmartre section of Paris riding on boards with roller skate wheels attached to them in late 1944.

Skateboarding, as we know it, was probably born sometime in the late 1940s, or early 1950s, when surfers in California wanted something to do when the waves were flat. This was called “sidewalk surfing” – a new wave of surfing on the sidewalk as the sport of surfing became highly popular. No one knows who made the first board; it seems that several people came up with similar ideas at around the same time. The first manufactured skateboards were ordered by a Los Angeles, California surf shop, meant to be used by surfers in their downtime. The shop owner, Bill Richard, made a deal with the Chicago Roller Skate Company to produce sets of skate wheels, which they attached to square wooden boards. Accordingly, skateboarding was originally denoted “sidewalk surfing” and early skaters emulated surfing style and maneuvers, and performed barefoot.

By the 1960s a small number of surfing manufacturers in Southern California such as Jack’s, Kips’, Hobie, Bing’s and Makaha started building skateboards that resembled small surfboards, and assembled teams to promote their products. One of the earliest Skateboard exhibitions was sponsored by Makaha’s founder, Larry Stevenson, in 1963 and held at the Pier Avenue Junior High School in Hermosa Beach, California. Some of these same teams of skateboarders were also featured on a television show called “Surf’s Up” in 1964, hosted by Stan Richards, that helped promote skateboarding as something new and fun to do.

As the popularity of skateboarding began expanding, the first skateboarding magazine, The Quarterly Skateboarder was published in 1964. John Severson who published the magazine wrote in his first editorial:

Today’s skateboarders are founders in this sport—they’re pioneers—they are the first. There is no history in Skateboarding—its being made now—by you. The sport is being molded and we believe that doing the right thing now will lead to a bright future for the sport. Already, there are storm clouds on the horizon with opponents of the sport talking about ban and restriction.

The magazine only lasted four issues, but resumed publication as Skateboarder in 1975. The first broadcast of an actual skateboarding competition was the 1965 National Skateboarding Championships, which were held in Anaheim, California and aired on ABC’s “Wide World of Sports. Because skateboarding was a new sport during this time, there were only two original disciplines during competitions; flatland freestyle & slalom downhill racing.

One of the earliest sponsored skateboarders, Patti McGee, was paid by Hobie and Vita Pak to travel around the country to do skateboarding exhibitions and to demonstrate skateboarding safety tips. McGee made the cover of Life magazine in 1965 and was featured on several popular television programs The Mike Douglas Show, What’s My Line? and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, which helped make skateboarding even more popular at the time. Some of the other well known surfer-style skateboarders of the time also included Danny Bearer, Torger Johnson, Bruce Logan, Bill and Mark Richards, Woody Woodward, & Jim Fitzpatrick.

The growth of the sport during this period can also be seen in sales figures for Makaha, which quoted $10 million worth of board sales between 1963 and 1965 (Weyland, 2002:28). By 1966 a variety of sources began to claim that skateboarding was dangerous, resulting in shops being reluctant to sell them, and parents being reluctant to buy them. In 1966 sales had dropped significantly (ibid) and Skateboarder Magazine had stopped publication. The popularity of skateboarding dropped and remained low until the early 1970s.

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About Nike, Inc. | Nike Company

About Nike, Inc.

Nike, Inc. (official, US /ˈnaɪki/; also, non-US /ˈnaɪk/) is an American multinational corporation that is engaged in the design, development, manufacturing, and worldwide marketing and sales of footwear, apparel, equipment, accessories, and services. The company is headquartered near Beaverton, Oregon, in the Portland metropolitan area. It is one of the world’s largest suppliers of athletic shoes and apparel and a major manufacturer of sports equipment, with revenue in excess of US$24.1 billion in its fiscal year 2012 (ending May 31, 2012). As of 2012, it employed more than 44,000 people worldwide. In 2014 the brand alone was valued at $19 billion, making it the most valuable brand among sports businesses.

The company was founded on January 25, 1964, as Blue Ribbon Sports, by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight, and officially became Nike, Inc. on May 30, 1971. The company takes its name from Nike, the Greek goddess of victory. Nike markets its products under its own brand, as well as Nike Golf, Nike Pro, Nike+, Air Jordan, Nike Blazers, Air Force 1, Nike Dunk, Air Max, Foamposite, Nike Skateboarding, and subsidiaries including Brand Jordan, Hurley International and Converse. Nike also owned Bauer Hockey (later renamed Nike Bauer) between 1995 and 2008, and previously owned Cole Haan and Umbro. In addition to manufacturing sportswear and equipment, the company operates retail stores under the Niketown name. Nike sponsors many high-profile athletes and sports teams around the world, with the highly recognized trademarks of “Just Do It” and the Swoosh logo.

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Nike Skateboarding’s History, The history of Nike Skateboarding

Nike Skateboarding, also known as Nike SB, is the Nike brand for its line of shoes, clothing, and equipment for skateboarding.

Nike Skateboarding’s History, The history of Nike Skateboarding
In 1997, Nike commenced production of its own line of skate shoes, but was unable to sell to many specialist skate shops, as the market was already strongly in favour of companies such as DC, Globe, eS Footwear, Emerica, and Vans; Nike was not considered a core skateboarding brand among the skateboarding community and, therefore, did not receive the necessary level of support.

In 2002, Nike introduced the “SB” brand. The Nike SB Dunk Low model was released, and consisted of padded tongues and collars and the “Zoom Air” insoles; the shoe was more similar to other skate shoe styles than the corporation’s previous attempts. After the SB Dunk’s mediocre sales, Nike released four other models: The Nike SB Angus, Nike SB FC, Nike SB Delta Force, and Nike SB URL

In 2004, Nike SB signed Paul Rodriguez as a figurehead for the brand and recruited Lewis Marnell as the sole Australian team rider during the same period. In March of that year, Nike released the Nike Dunk SB collection, aimed towards skateboarders in California. The associated shoe designs differed from the previous SB Dunk range in that they were designed specifically for skateboarding. The collection included increased padding, Zoom Air insoles, and enhanced material quality, including triple stitching, a standard for skate shoes.

In 2005, Rodriguez released a signature shoe model named the “Nike SB Paul Rodriguez Zoom Air Low”. That year, one of Nike SB’s spokespersons Lance Mountain decided to release the Nike Blazer SB, a version of the Nike Blazer basketball shoe from the early 1970s. It was named the Nike SB Blazer and several new features were added, such as the padded collar and Zoom Air insoles. Mountain previously rode for Adidas and then joined Nike SB in 2007.

Nike SB released its first video Nothing But The Truth in 2007 and held the premiere at the Ziegfeld Theatre in New York City, U.S. The inaugural video production, directed by Lionel Goldstein, features the Nike SB team, with Marnell in the opening part and Rodriguez’s part the conclusion of the video.

In 2009, Eric Koston left Lakai Limited Footwear to join Nike and a video featuring the Nike SB amateur team, called Debacle, was released later in the year. In December 2011, the video SB Chronicles Vol. 1 premiered online, while premiere parties and free video showings were held throughout the world. The first volume of a two-part series features Stefan Janoski, Wieger Van Wageningen, Chet Childress, Daniel Shimizu, Youness Amrani, Marnell, Grant Taylor, and Clarke Hassler.

In 2012, professional Sean Malto (riding for Girl) left Etnies for Nike SB, shortly after his 2011 street league skateboarding win. Flip rider Luan Oliviera was also added to the team and, in late June 2012, Nike SB announced its collaboration with Levi’s and team rider Omar Salazar appeared in the promotional advertisements.

In July 2012, Nike Skateboarding opened a private training facility that had been constructed in Downtown Los Angeles, US. Entitled “6th and Mill”, due to its location at the intersection of the corresponding street names (E. Sixth and Mill Streets), the official opening of the facility coincided with the launch of Rodriguez’s sixth signature shoe with the brand. The training facility has featured heavily on The Berrics skateboarding website since its opening, with segments such as “First Try Fridays” (with professional skateboarder Theotis Beasley) and “Text Yo’self Before You Wreck Yo’self” (with professional skateboarder Chris Roberts) filmed inside the facility.

The brand released a preview of Brian Anderson’s first signature shoe model, entitled the “Nike SB Project BA”, in February 2013. The Sneaker Report website explained that the “upper appears to be a two-piece construction with ample perforations for breathability.” As of mid-June 2013, the model has not yet been released.

A promotional campaign, identified by the hashtag “#thelegendgrows”, was launched by Nike to coincide with release of Koston’s second signature shoe model the “Eric Koston 2” in March 2013. An advertisement that included other Nike athletes, such as Tiger Woods, and Koston’s Nike SB teammates was filmed and a behind-the-scenes video was also published on the brand’s YouTube channel. Koston used the Eric Koston 2 design as a basis for a limited edition golf shoe, named the “Koston 2 IT”, and a corresponding launch was held in London, UK at the 1948 Stadium store in Shoreditch.

The trailer for the video SB Chronicles Vol. 2 was published on the Internet in mid-June 2013. The second volume of the two-part series features Oliveira, Daryl Angel, Donovon Piscopo, Theotis Beasley, Justin Brock, Shane O’Neill, and Ishod Wair. Also in mid-June, Nike SB announced that Fucking Awesome Skateboards’ Kevin Bradley and Skate Mental skateboards’ Trevor Colden were the latest amateur additions to the team.In August 2013, Nike SB collaborated with Almost and TransWorld Skateboarding magazine on a feature for amateur rider Youness Amrani. Entitled “Marrakesh Express”, the project combined a print article with a video part that was launched on the TransWorld website on August 9, 2013. Videographer Chris Thiesson accompanied Amrani as he skated and traveled between “Casablanca and Marrakesh by way of Rabat, Kenitra, and Agadir” in Morocco. Amrani was born in Morocco, but grew up in Belgium.

In early 2014. Amrani was promoted to professional status with his skateboard deck company Almost, and attained professional status on the Nike SB team afterwards.

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